rightCalayan is an island and 4th class municipality in the province of Cagayan, Philippines. It is one of the Babuyan Islands in the Luzon Strait north of Luzon island. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 14,309 people in 2,654 households.
It is home to the Calayan Rail, a flightless bird identified as a separate species in 2004.
In 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Calayan, Cagayan.
In 1945, Philippine Commonwealth troops landed in the island of Calayan, Cagayan. Japanese Imperial forces were defeated by Filipino soldiers in the Battle of Babuyan Islands during World War II.
Calayan is politically subdivided into 12 barangay.